Plant Hormone Analysis

Plant Hormone Analysis Inquiry

Plant hormones are highly dynamic chemical messengers that play essential roles in the regulation of plant physiological processes, including cell growth, organ differentiation, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, analysis and monitoring of plant hormones forms a valuable tool in plant performance improvement and new crop trait development.

As the plant hormones often present at fairly low concentrations, and their amounts and distributions and are actively changing, it is critical to analyze the hormone levels in real time with high sensitivity. Lifeasible, as a leading plant biotechnology with a long history of plant physiological studies, provides both biosensor-based and mass spectrometry-based approaches that ensure continuous and accurate detections of plant hormones. 

Biosensor-based methods allow continuous monitoring of hormone levels, as well as visualization of local distributions of targeted hormones. Lifeasible provides a list of biosensors that can be applied to the detection of a wide range of hormones in various types of plant tissues.

  • Electrochemical biosensors. Utilizing current or impedance changes resulted from enzymatic redox reactions as sensory readout; intermediate compounds that are specific to certain plant hormones can also be used as biosensors or electrodes to monitor hormone levels in real-time (Figure 1).  
  • Immunosensors. Single stranded RNAs or DNAs, also known as aptamers, fold to create binding sites for ligand molecules. Specially engineered aptamers can bind to targeted plant hormones.
  • Genetically encoded biosensors. Genetic reporters of plant hormones are designed based on the promoter regions of the targeted plant hormones.  

Plant Hormone Analysis
Figure 1. A schematic illustration of electrochemical biosensor setup for measurement in tomato root exudate (Novak, Napier et al. 2017).

Mass spectrometry-based methods are highly sensitive approaches that allow accurate identification and quantification of plant hormones.

  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Gas chromatography (GC) is an efficient method for the detection and sorting of volatile organic compounds (VOC). When combined with mass spectrometry (MS), compositions of hormones can be separated and analyzed in a linear format (GC-MS), with high fidelity.
  • Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Similar to GC-MS, the LC-MS technology combines high-throughput compound separation with ultra-sensitive detection methods, allowing the analysis of plant hormone molecules within a complicated biological matrix.  

Sample requirements:

  • Cell sample. After sampling, centrifuge, remove the medium, put it in liquid nitrogen immediately, and store it at -80°C. The sample quality is recommended to be >1g, and 3 biological replicates should be prepared.
  • Leaf, stem, flower samples. Put it in liquid nitrogen immediately after removal, and then store it at -80°C. The sample quality is recommended to be >1g, and 3 biological replicates need to be prepared.

With state-of-the-art technologies, as well as our teams of excellent scientists and experts, Lifeasible is devoted to providing our worldwide customers with the best services at competitive rates. Our high-capacity lab facilities allow hormone analysis of a wide range of plant species, at cell, tissue and whole plant levels. Moreover, we proudly offer our customers with one-stop services, covering all steps from experimental designing to data reporting. Welcome to contact us for questions, inquiries or collaborations.

Reference

  1. Novak, O., R. Napier and K. Ljung (2017). "Zooming In on Plant Hormone Analysis: Tissue- and Cell-Specific Approaches." Annu Rev Plant Biol 68: 323-348.

Table 1 List of detectable plant hormones and related compounds at Lifeasible

NO. Phytohormone Abbreviation Classification
1 Indole-3-acetic acid IAA Auxin
2 Methyl indole-3-acetate ME-IAA Auxin
3 Indole-3-butyric acid IBA Auxin
4 Indole-3-carboxaldehyde ICAld Auxin
5 Indole-3-carboxylic acid ICA Auxin
6 3-Indolepropionic acid IPA Auxin
7 1-O-Indol-3-ylacetylglucose IAA-Glc Auxin
8 Indoleacetyl glutamic acid IAA-Glu Auxin
9 3-Indoleacetonitrile IAN Auxin
10 Indole-3-acetyl-lglutamic acid dimethyl ester IAA-Glu-diMe Auxin
11 Indole-3-acetyl-L-leucine methyl ester IAA-Leu-Me Auxin
12 Indole-3-acetly-L-valine methyl ester IAA-Val-Me Auxin
13 Indole-3-acetyl glycine IAA-Gly Auxin
14 2-Oxindole-3-acetic acid OxIAA Auxin
15 Indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid IAA-Asp Auxin
16 N-(3-Indolylacetyl)-L-leucine IAA-Leu Auxin
17 N-(3-Indolylacetyl)-L-valine IAA-Val Auxin
18 Indole-3-acetyl-L-phenylalanne methyle ester IAA-Phe -Me Auxin
19 Indole-3-acetyl-L-tryptophan IAA-Trp Auxin
20 3-Indoleacetamide IAM Auxin
21 Tryptamine TRA Auxin
22 Indole-3-lactic acid ILA Auxin
23 3-Indoleacrylic acid IA Auxin
24 N-(3-Indolylacetyl)-L-alanine IAA-Ala Auxin
25 L-Tryptophan TRP Auxin
26 N-(3-Indolylacetyl)-L-phenylalanine IAA-Phe Auxin
27 N6-Isopentenyladenine IP CK
28 trans-Zeatin tZ CK
29 cis-Zeatin cZ CK
30 Dihydrozeatin DZ CK
31 Isopentenyladenosine IPR CK
32 trans-Zeatin riboside tZR CK
33 Dihydrozeatin-7-glucoside DHZ7G CK
34 Dihydrozeatin ribonucleoside DHZR CK
35 cis-Zeatin riboside cZR CK
36 4-[[(9-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-9H-purin-6-yl)amino]methyl]phenol pT9G CK
37 2-Chloro-trans-zeatin 2CltZ CK
38 para-Topolin pT CK
39 meta-Topolin mT CK
40 meta-Topolin riboside mTR CK
41 ortho-Topolin oT CK
42 6-Benzyladenine BAP CK
43 6-Benzyladenosine BAPR CK
44 Kinetin K CK
45 Kinetin riboside KR CK
46 para-Topolin riboside pTR CK
47 ortho-Topolin riboside oTR CK
48 cis-Zeatin-9-glucoside cZ9G CK
49 N6-Isopentenyl-adenine-9-glucoside IP9G CK
50 N6-Isopentenyl-adenine-7-glucoside IP7G CK
51 trans-Zeatin-O-glucoside tZOG CK
52 Dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside riboside DHZROG CK
53 cis-Zeatin-O-glucoside riboside cZROG CK
54 meta-Topolin-9-glucoside (mT9G) mT9G CK
55 ortho-Topolin-9-glucoside oT9G CK
56 N6-Benzyladenine -9-glucoside BAP9G CK
57 N6-Benzyladenine-7-glucoside BAP7G CK
58 Kinetin-9-glucoside K9G CK
59 2-Methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenine 2MeSiP CK
60 2-Methylthio-cis-zeatin 2MeScZ CK
61 2-Methylthio-cis-zeatin riboside 2MeScZR CK
62 2-Methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenosine 2MeSiPR CK
63 Methyl jasmonate MEJA JA
64 Jasmonic acid JA JA
65 Dihydrojasmonic acid H2JA JA
66 Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine JA-ILE JA
67 12-Oxophytodienoic acid OPDA JA
68 N-[(-)-Jasmonoyl]-(L)-phenalanine JA-Phe JA
69 N-[(-)-Jasmonoyl]-(L)-valine JA-Val JA
70 (±)-OPC-4 OPC-4 JA
71 (±)-OPC-6 OPC-6 JA
72 Salicylic acid SA SA
73 Salicylic acid 2-O-β-glucoside SAG SA
74 Abscisic acid ABA ABA
75 ABA-glucosyl ester ABA-GE ABA
76 Gibberellin A1 GA1 GA
77 Gibberellin A3 GA3 GA
78 Gibberellin A4 GA4 GA
79 Gibberellin A5 GA5 GA
80 Gibberellin A6 GA6 GA
81 Gibberellin A7 GA7 GA
82 Gibberellin A8 GA8 GA
83 Gibberellin A9 GA9 GA
84 Gibberellin A12 GA12 GA
85 Gibberellin A15 GA15 GA
86 Gibberellin A19 GA19 GA
87 Gibberellin A20 GA20 GA
88 Gibberellin A24 GA24 GA
89 Gibberellin A29 GA29 GA
90 Gibberellin A34 GA34 GA
91 Gibberellin A44 GA44 GA
92 Gibberellin A51 GA51 GA
93 Gibberellin A53 GA53 GA
94 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid ACC Ethylene
95 Brassinolide BL BRs
96 24-epi-Brassinolide 24-epiBL BRs
97 28-Norbrassinolide 28-norBL BRs
98 28-Homobrassinolide 28-homoBL BRs
99 Castasterone CS BRs
100 6-Deoxocastasterone 6-deoxoCS BRs
101 28-Norcastasterone 28-NorCS BRs
102 28-Homocastasterone 28-HomoCS BRs
103 6-Deoxo-24-epi-castasterone 6-Deoxo-24-epiCS BRs
104 Typhasterol TY BRs
105 28-Norteasterone 28-norTE BRs
106 Strigol ST SL
107 5-Deoxystrigol 5DS SL
108 Melatonine MLT MLT
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