Plant breeding is the science of creating new varieties via modifications of plant genome, which accelerates production of plants with desired traits, such as higher productivity, nutritional value, as well as enhanced tolerance against drought and diseases. Nowadays, plant breeding has not only been applied in the development of crop varieties, but also plays essential roles for industrial uses such as fiber, fuel, shelter, and landscaping. Lifeasible, as one of the most innovating plant breeding companies in the world, offers a wide array of plant breeding services, from traditional breeding to modern molecular breeding.
Plant breeding can be accomplished through a variety of techniques, including trait selection, mutation introduction, plant tissue culture (e.g., embryo rescue, haploid breeding, etc.), and molecular genome editing techniques (e.g., marker-assisted breeding).
Lifeasible has rich experience in all facets of plant breeding. Our skilled scientists and experts have contributed decades of dedicated work for the exploring and optimizing of advanced modern breeding methods. We proudly offer competitive short-turn-around plant breeding services in a wide range of plant species, including major food crops, economic plants, and bio-energy feedstock plants. We also have established valuable international tie-ups with renowned companies to provide you with the best solutions to undertake your research projects.
Discovery and development of molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) would be routine for crop improvement in the near future. We provide multiple technologies for marker discovery and development, including hybridization/PCR-based methods, Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, DNA chips, next-generation sequencing, restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq), amplicon sequencing (AmpSeq), single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing, microarray, bioinformatics, and so on.
Most agricultural traits of interest are quantitative and are controlled by many genes on specific chromosome locations, called quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Identification of these QTLs in the genomes of crop species can be realized by linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping, which requires analysis of a group of genetically diverse individuals from a specific germplasm collection.
GWAS is a population-based statistical association analysis for SNPs at genome-wide coverage and traits of interest based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). It relies mostly on null hypothesis-based statistical inferences, such as regression models. Outputs of GWAS can be visualized as Manhattan and/or quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. GWAS has been widely used in plant breeding for crop improvement.
Positional cloning, also known as map-based cloning, is a genetic method for the identification of genes that are responsible for specific mutant phenotypes using information from both genetic and physical maps. It has been widely used in plant breeding for the isolation of genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are associated with desired traits.
Marker-assisted breeding refers to the plant breeding method where a trait of interest is selected based on genetic markers (i.e. small region of DNA sequences variation). The methodologies of marker-assisted selection include marker-based backcrossing, marker-based pyramiding of multiple genes, marker-assisted recurrent selection, and genomic selection.
Plant mutation breeding is widely used for crop improvement. Mutation can be generated by insertion of T-DNA or transposons into the genome, or induced by physical (e.g., X-ray and fast neutrons) or chemical agents (e.g., ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)). The mutation can be identified by inverse PCR or thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (tail-PCR) with a tag sequence, or be screened by high-throughput technologies such as whole genome sequencing and targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING).
Embryo rescue is an in vitro culture technique that is used to promote the development of an immature or weak embryo into a viable plant. It plays an important role in modern plant breeding, allowing the development of many interspecific and intergeneric hybrids, as well as progenies of other incompatible crosses which lead to aborted embryos.
Haploids are very valuable in plant breeding because they carry only one allele of each gene, which allows expressions of mutations and recessive characteristics in the plant. Essentially, haploids can produce homozygous diploid or polyploid plants through spontaneous approaches or chemical induction, accelerating the process of plant breeding. Currently, the most important methods utilized to produce haploid plants are anther culture and chromosome elimination following interspecific hybridization.
Polyploids are organisms possessing more than two complete sets of chromosomes. Polyploids can be generated by physical inductions (e.g., X-ray and fast neutrons), chemical agents (e.g., colchicines), or biological approach such as protoplast fusion. The polyploid offspring of two diploid progenitors tend to be more vigorous and healthier than either of the diploid parents. Moreover, the fertility of a sterile hybrid can be restored by creating allopolyploidy. Generating of polyploids provides plant breeders with more options for developing novel plants and improving existing cultivated varieties.