Lifeasible is an industrial leader in providing genetically modified plants. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), firstly used as artificial restriction enzymes for genome editing, are a class of powerful tools for the addition, deletion or substitution of genetic sequences with much greater precision than traditional plant breeding techniques, exhibiting great prosperous future for crop quality improvement.
ZNF includes a zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a DNA cleavage domain. The DNA-binding domain is usually composed of 3-4 zinc fingers proteins with conjugated Cys2His2 motifs that each recognizes a specific nucleotide triplet based on the residues in their α helix. The DNA cleavage domain is from the FokI restriction endonuclease which must dimerize to cut DNA in a nonsequence-specific manner, and then induces DSBs (DNA double strand breaks). The DSBs are repaired by two pathways: NHEJ (non-homologous end joining), leading to nucleotide insertions, deletions, or nucleotide substitutions in the broken regions, or HDR (homology directed repair), which uses homologous DNA as a template to restore the DSBs allowing for precise and controllable repairs.
Figure 1. Structure of zinc finger nucleases (Miller et al., 2007)
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